In situ and In operando techniques

  • Novel high resolution X-ray diffraction methods for investigating internal interfaces between lithiated and non-lithiated phases during charge/discharge.
  • Time and spatially resolved micro diffraction to determine chemical gradients in lithium battery electrodes during operation.
  • In situ X-ray diffraction and scattering methods to follow nucleation and growth of nanostructures in conversion materials.
  • In situ TEM studies of electrochemical processes.
  • In situ studies of surfaces and interfaces by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) to investigate SEI formation and supercapacitor electrodes during operation.
  • In situ Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy studies of SEI formation.
  • Development of in situ and high pressure XPS methods for studies of SEI layers.